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Monopoly (englisch für „Monopol“) ist ein bekanntes US-amerikanisches Brettspiel. Ziel des Spiels ist es, ein Grundstücksimperium aufzubauen und alle. Monopoly ist das berühmte Spiel um den großen Deal. Auf der offiziellen Monopoly-Website findest du alles rund um den beliebten Spieleklassiker: Du kannst. Hasbro Spiele Monopoly Classic, Familienspiel bei heerlijketussenwoning.nl | Günstiger Preis | Kostenloser Versand ab 29€ für ausgewählte Artikel. von Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für "Monopoly". Amazon Kids. Geburtstagsgeschenke kinderleicht finden · Amazon's Choice für "Monopoly". große Auswahl an Monopoly-Spiele ✓ Brettspielklassiker trifft auf coole Lizenzen ✓ Disney, Pokemon, Game of Thrones u.v.m. ✓ Online bestellen.

Monopoly

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Monopoly is a version of the game released in , in which female players earn more than male players. Monopoly Deal is a card game derived from the board-game Monopoly introduced in , produced and sold by Cartamundi under a license from Hasbro.

Players attempt to collect three complete sets of cards representing the properties from the original board game, either by playing them directly, stealing them from other players, swapping cards with other players, or collecting them as rent for other properties they already own.

The cards in the card deck represent properties and wild cards, various denominations of Monopoly money used to pay rent, and special action cards which can either be played for their effects or banked as money instead.

All property deeds, houses, and hotels are held by the bank until bought by the players. A standard set of Monopoly pieces includes:. A deck of thirty-two Chance and Community Chest cards sixteen each which players draw when they land on the corresponding squares of the track, and follow the instructions printed on them.

A title deed for each property is given to a player to signify ownership, and specifies purchase price, mortgage value, the cost of building houses and hotels on that property, and the various rents depending on how developed the property is.

Properties include:. A pair of six-sided dice is included, with a " Speed Die " added for variation in The Millennium Edition featured two jewel-like dice which were the subject of a lawsuit from Michael Bowling, owner of dice maker Crystal Caste.

Unlike money, houses and hotels have a finite supply. If no more are available, no substitute is allowed. In most editions, houses are green and hotels red.

Older U. Newer September and later U. Before September , the money was divided with greater numbers of 20 and dollar bills. Since then, the U.

Although the U. However, the amount of cash contained in the game is enough for eight players with a slight alteration of bill distribution.

Pre-Euro German editions of the game started with 30, "Spielmark" in eight denominations abbreviated as "M. In the classic Italian game, each player received L.

The classic Italian games were played with only four denominations of currency. Both Spanish editions the Barcelona and Madrid editions started the game with , in play money, with a breakdown identical to that of the American version.

According to the Parker Brothers rules, Monopoly money is theoretically unlimited; if the bank runs out of money it may issue as much as needed "by merely writing on any ordinary paper".

In several countries there is also a version of the game that features electronic banking. Instead of receiving paper money, each player receives a plastic bank card that is inserted into a calculator-like electronic device that keeps track of the player's balance.

Lizzie Magie originally created this game for children to learn how to add and subtract through the usage of paper money. However, now with the new innovations of credit cards implemented in these games, many consumers are worried that the purpose of the game is ruined.

Each player is represented by a small metal or plastic token that is moved around the edge of the board according to the roll of two six-sided dice.

The number of tokens and the tokens themselves have changed over the history of the game with many appearing in special editions only, and some available with non-game purchases.

After prints with wood tokens in , a set of eight tokens was introduced. Many of the early tokens were created by companies such as Dowst Miniature Toy Company, which made metal charms and tokens designed to be used on charm bracelets.

The battleship and cannon were also used briefly in the Parker Brothers war game Conflict released in , but after the game failed on the market, the premade pieces were recycled for Monopoly usage.

These tokens remained the same until the late s, when Parker Brothers was sold to Hasbro. In , a Hasbro advertising campaign asked the public to vote on a new playing piece to be added to the set.

The candidates were a "bag of money", a bi-plane, and a piggy bank. In , a similar promotional campaign was launched encouraging the public to vote on one of several possible new tokens to replace an existing one.

The choices were a guitar, a diamond ring, a helicopter, a robot, and a cat. Both were chosen by a vote that ran on Facebook from January 8 to February 5, By March 17, , Hasbro retired three tokens which included the thimble, wheelbarrow, and boot, these were replaced by a penguin, a Tyrannosaurus and a rubber duck.

Over the years Hasbro has released tokens for special or collector's editions of the game. One of the first tokens to come out included a Steam Locomotive which was only released in Deluxe Editions.

Shortly after the Facebook voting campaign, a limited-edition Golden Token set was released exclusively at various national retailers, such as Target in the U.

These replacement tokens included the cat, the guitar, the diamond ring, the helicopter, and the robot. Players take turns in order with the initial player determined by chance before the game.

A typical turn begins with the rolling of the dice and advancing a piece clockwise around the board the corresponding number of squares. If a player rolls doubles, they roll again after completing that portion of their turn.

A player who rolls three consecutive sets of doubles on one turn has been "caught speeding" and is immediately sent to jail instead of moving the amount shown on the dice for the third roll.

Players who land on either Income Tax or Luxury Tax pay the indicated amount to the bank. No calculation could be made before the choice, and no latitude was given for reversing an unwise calculation.

No reward or penalty is given for landing on Free Parking. Properties can only be developed once a player owns all the properties in that color group.

They then must be developed equally. A house must be built on each property of that color before a second can be built. Each property within a group must be within one house level of all the others within that group.

If a player lands on a Chance or Community Chest space, they draw the top card from the respective deck and follow its instructions.

This may include collecting or paying money to the bank or another player or moving to a different space on the board.

When a player is sent to jail, they move directly to the Jail space and their turn ends " Do not pass Go. If an ordinary dice roll not one of the above events ends with the player's token on the Jail corner, they are "Just Visiting" and can move ahead on their next turn without incurring any penalty.

If a player fails to roll doubles, they lose their turn. Players in jail may not buy properties directly from the bank since they are unable to move.

A player who rolls doubles to leave jail does not roll again; however, if the player pays the fine or uses a card to get out and then rolls doubles, they do take another turn.

If the player lands on an unowned property, whether street, railroad, or utility, they can buy the property for its listed purchase price.

If they decline this purchase, the property is auctioned off by the bank to the highest bidder, including the player who declined to buy.

When a player owns all the properties in a color group and none of them are mortgaged, they may develop them during their turn or in between other player's turns.

Development involves buying miniature houses or hotels from the bank and placing them on the property spaces; this must be done uniformly across the group.

That is, a second house cannot be built on any property within a group until all of them have one house.

Once the player owns an entire group, they can collect double rent for any undeveloped properties within it. Although houses and hotels cannot be built on railroads or utilities, the given rent increases if a player owns more than one of either type.

If there is a housing shortage more demand for houses to be built than what remains in the bank , then a housing auction is conducted to determine who will get to purchase each house.

Properties can also be mortgaged, although all developments on a monopoly must be sold before any property of that color can be mortgaged or traded.

The player receives half the purchase price from the bank for each mortgaged property. Houses and hotels can be sold back to the bank for half their purchase price.

Players cannot collect rent on mortgaged properties and may not give improved property away to others; however, trading mortgaged properties is allowed.

A player who cannot pay what they owe is bankrupt and eliminated from the game. If the bankrupt player owes the bank, they must turn all their assets over to the bank, who then auctions off their properties if they have any , except buildings.

If the debt is owed to another player instead, all assets are given to that opponent, except buildings which must be returned to the bank.

The winner is the remaining player left after all of the others have gone bankrupt. If a player runs out of money but still has assets that can be converted to cash, they can do so by selling buildings, mortgaging properties, or trading with other players.

To avoid bankruptcy the player must be able to raise enough cash to pay the full amount owed. A player cannot choose to go bankrupt; if there is any way to pay what they owe, even by returning all their buildings at a loss, mortgaging all their real estate and giving up all their cash, even knowing they are likely going bankrupt the next time, they must do so.

From , the rules booklet included with each Monopoly set contained a short section at the end providing rules for making the game shorter, including dealing out two Title Deed cards to each player before starting the game, by setting a time limit or by ending the game after the second player goes bankrupt.

A later version of the rules included this variant, along with the time limit game, in the main rules booklet, omitting the last, the second bankruptcy method, as a third short game.

Many house rules have emerged for the game throughout its history. Well-known is the "Free Parking jackpot rule", where all the money collected from Income Tax, Luxury Tax, Chance and Community Chest goes to the center of the board instead of the bank.

When a player lands on Free Parking, they may take the money. Since these rules provide additional cash to players regardless of their property management choices, they can lengthen the game considerably and limit the role of strategy.

Video game and computer game versions of Monopoly have options where popular house rules can be used.

In , Hasbro determined five popular house rules by public Facebook vote, and released a "House Rules Edition" of the board game.

Rules selected include a "Free Parking" house rule without additional money and forcing players to traverse the board once before buying properties.

Among the property groups, the Railroads are most frequently landed upon, as no other group has four properties; Orange has the next highest frequency, followed by Red.

According to Business Insider , the best way to get the most out of every property is through houses and hotels. In order to do so, the player must have all the corresponding properties of the color set.

Three houses allows the player to make all the money they spent on the houses back and earn even more as players land on those properties.

Trading is a vital strategy in order to accumulate all the properties in a color set. Obtaining all the properties in a specific color set enables the player to buy houses and hotels which increase the rent another player has to pay when they land on the property.

According to Slate , players trade to speed up the process and secure a win. Building at least 3 houses on each property allows the player to break even once at least one player lands on this property.

One common criticism of Monopoly is that although it has carefully defined termination conditions, it may take an unlimited amount of time to reach them.

Edward P. Parker, a former president of Parker Brothers , is quoted as saying, "We always felt that forty-five minutes was about the right length for a game, but Monopoly could go on for hours.

Also, a game was supposed to have a definite end somewhere. In Monopoly you kept going around and around.

Hasbro states that the longest game of Monopoly ever played lasted 70 days. Numerous add-ons have been produced for Monopoly , sold independently from the game both before its commercialization and after, with three official ones discussed below:.

Shortly after Capitol Novelty introduced Stock Exchange , Parker Brothers bought it from them then marketed their own, slightly redesigned, version as an add-on specifically for their "new" Monopoly game; the Parker Brothers version was available in June The Free Parking square is covered over by a new Stock Exchange space and the add-on included three Chance and three Community Chest cards directing the player to "Advance to Stock Exchange".

The Stock Exchange add-on was later redesigned and re-released in under license by Chessex , this time including a larger number of new Chance and Community Chest cards.

Many of the original rules applied to this new version in fact, one optional play choice allows for playing in the original form by only adding the "Advance to Stock Exchange" cards to each deck.

This was a full edition, not just an add-on, that came with its own board, money and playing pieces. Properties on the board were replaced by companies on which shares could be floated, and offices and home offices instead of houses and hotels could be built.

Playmaster, another official add-on, released in , is an electronic device that keeps track of all player movement and dice rolls as well as what properties are still available.

It then uses this information to call random auctions and mortgages making it easier to free up cards of a color group. It also plays eight short tunes when key game functions occur; for example when a player lands on a railroad it plays " I've Been Working on the Railroad ", and a police car's siren sounds when a player goes to Jail.

In , Hasbro released two minigames that can be played as stand-alone games or combined with the Monopoly game. In Get Out of Jail , the goal is to manipulate a spade under a jail cell to flick out various colored prisoners.

The game can be used as an alternative to rolling doubles to get out of jail. The Free Parking add-on can also be used with the Monopoly game.

When a player lands on the Free Parking, the player can take the Taxi Challenge, and if successful, can move to any space on the board.

First included in Winning Moves' Monopoly: The Mega Edition variant, this third, six-sided die is rolled with the other two, and accelerates game-play when in use.

Its faces are: 1, 2, 3, two " Mr. Monopoly " sides, and a bus. The numbers behave as normal, adding to the other two dice, unless a "triple" is rolled, in which case the player can move to any space on the board.

If "Mr. Monopoly" is rolled while there are unowned properties, the player advances forward to the nearest one.

Otherwise, the player advances to the nearest property on which rent is owed. In the Monopoly: Mega Edition , rolling the bus allows the player to take the regular dice move, then either take a bus ticket or move to the nearest draw card space.

Mega rules specifies that triples do not count as doubles for going to jail as the player does not roll again. In these editions it remains optional, although use of the Speed Die was made mandatory for use in the U.

Parker Brothers and its licensees have also sold several spin-offs of Monopoly. These are not add-ons, as they do not function as an addition to the Monopoly game, but are simply additional games with the flavor of Monopoly :.

Besides the many variants of the actual game and the Monopoly Junior spin-off released in either video game or computer game formats e.

Monopoly -themed slot machines and lotteries have been produced by WMS Gaming in conjunction with International Game Technology for land-based casinos.

London's Gamesys Group have also developed Monopoly -themed gambling games. There was also a live, online version of Monopoly. Six painted taxis drive around London picking up passengers.

When the taxis reach their final destination, the region of London that they are in is displayed on the online board.

This version takes far longer to play than board-game Monopoly , with one game lasting 24 hours. Results and position are sent to players via e-mail at the conclusion of the game.

The show was produced by Merv Griffin and hosted by Mike Reilly. The show was paired with a summer-long Super Jeopardy!

In addition, beginning with Season 2, teams won "Monopoly Party Packages" for winning the individual games. For Season 3, there was a Community Chest.

Each card on Mr. Monopoly had a combination of three colors. Teams used the combination card to unlock the chest. If it was the right combination, they advanced to the Crazy Cash Machine for a brand-new car.

To honor the game's 80th anniversary, a game show in syndication on March 28, , called Monopoly Millionaires' Club was launched. However, the lottery game connected with the game show which provided the contestants went through multiple complications and variations, and the game show last aired at the end of April In November , Ridley Scott was announced to direct Universal Pictures ' film version of the game, based on a script written by Pamela Pettler.

The film was being co-produced by Hasbro's Brian Goldner as part of a deal with Hasbro to develop movies based on the company's line of toys and games.

In July , Hasbro announced that Lionsgate will distribute a Monopoly film with Andrew Niccol writing the film as a family-friendly action adventure film [] co-financed and produced by Lionsgate and Hasbro's Allspark Pictures.

Hart is attached to star in the film and Tim Story is attached to direct. No logline or writer for this iteration of the long-gestating project has been announced.

The film played theatrically in the U. Until , U. The U. National Tournament had 50 contestants - 49 State Champions Oklahoma was not represented and the reigning national champion.

Qualifying for the National Championship has been online since For the Championship, qualification was limited to the first fifty people who correctly completed an online quiz.

The process was to have produced a field of 23 plus one: Matt McNally , the national champion, who received a bye and was not required to qualify.

However, at the end of the online tournament, there was an eleven-way tie for the last six spots.

The decision was made to invite all of those who had tied for said spots. In fact, two of those who had tied and would have otherwise been eliminated, Dale Crabtree of Indianapolis, Indiana, and Brandon Baker, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, played in the final game and finished third and fourth respectively.

The Monopoly U. National Championship was held on April 14—15 in Washington, D. In his first tournament ever, Richard Marinaccio, an attorney from Sloan, New York a suburb of Buffalo , prevailed over a field that included two previous champions to be crowned the U.

National Champion. In , Hasbro used a competition that was held solely online to determine who would be the U. Interested players took a twenty-question quiz on Monopoly strategy and rules and submitted a hundred-word essay on how to win a Monopoly tournament.

Hasbro then selected Brian Valentine of Washington, D. Hasbro conducts a worldwide Monopoly tournament. Because Monopoly evolved in the public domain before its commercialization, Monopoly has seen many variant games.

The game is licensed in countries and printed in thirty-seven languages. National boards have been released as well.

This world edition features top locations of the world. The locations were decided by votes over the Internet. The result of the voting was announced on August 20, Out of these, Gdynia is especially notable, as it is by far the smallest city of those featured and won the vote thanks to a spontaneous, large-scale mobilization of support started by its citizens.

The new game uses its own currency unit, the Monopolonian a game-based take on the Euro; designated by M. The game uses said unit in millions and thousands.

As seen below, there is no dark purple color-group, as that is replaced by brown, as in the European version of the game.

No other countries are represented by more than one city. Of the 68 cities listed on Hasbro Inc. This is a game.

We never wanted to enter into any political debate. We apologize to our Monopoly fans. A similar online vote was held in early for an updated version of the game.

The resulting board should be released worldwide in late Hasbro sells a Deluxe Edition , which is mostly identical to the classic edition but has wooden houses and hotels and gold-toned tokens, including one token in addition to the standard eleven, a railroad locomotive.

Other additions to the Deluxe Edition include a card carousel, which holds the title deed cards, and money printed with two colors of ink.

In , retailer Neiman Marcus manufactured and sold an all-chocolate edition of Monopoly through its Christmas Wish Book for that year. The entire set was edible, including the money, dice, hotels, properties, tokens and playing board.

Wired magazine believes Monopoly is a poorly designed game. It's a very negative experience. It's all about cackling when your opponent lands on your space and you get to take all their money.

Most of the three to four-hour average playing time is spent waiting for other players to play their turn.

The hobby-gaming community BoardGameGeek is especially critical. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 4 August For the video game, see Automonopoli.

Board game about property trading and management. Negotiation Resource management Money Handling Strategy. Further information: History of the board game Monopoly.

Standard American Edition Monopoly board layout as of September Free Parking. See also: List of London Monopoly places. UK edition Monopoly board layout.

Monopoly Here and Now: The U. Edition Main article: Ms. Main article: Monopoly Deal. Main article: Monopoly money. Main article: Monopoly video games.

Main article: McDonald's Monopoly. Main article: Monopoly game show. Game description: Gay Monopoly — A celebration of gay life. Tokens: Jeep, teddy bear, blow drier, leather cap, handcuffs, stiletto heel.

Other features: Board layout is circular rather than square. Free Software. Game description: A parody game based on Anti-Monopoly.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

February Learn how and when to remove this template message. The New York Times. Retrieved February 14, Wolfe The San Francisco Bay Guardian.

Archived from the original on November 30, Retrieved October 28, New Statesman. Da Capo Press. The Guardian.

April 11, The Monopoly Book. Retrieved July 27, Retrieved June 20, Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved December 7, ABC News. Retrieved September 18, Wall Street Journal.

October 20, The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 11, The Vindicator. Los Angeles Times. San Diego Union Tribune. Boston Globe. The Globe Company.

Retrieved December 4, NBC News. October 22, Retrieved March 4, June 12, Retrieved September 3, June 6, Houston Chronicle. Bloomberg News.

Star Tribune. Retrieved January 12, New Straits Times. Retrieved December 21, Archived from the original on March 3, Retrieved February 21, Archived from the original on March 6, McGraw Hill Education.

Monopoly History. Archived from the original on January 26, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. Archived from the original on March 22, Retrieved June 10, The Route of the Blue Comet.

March 8, Retrieved September 2, Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved April 23, August 22, Cities Edition board game". CBC News.

January 13, Archived from the original on January 17, Archived from the original on February 21, Archived from the original on September 3, Archived from the original on December 2, Companies have a reduced incentive to lower costs.

Regulation of this type has not been limited to natural monopolies. By setting price equal to the intersection of the demand curve and the average total cost curve, the firm's output is allocatively inefficient as the price is less than the marginal cost which is the output quantity for a perfectly competitive and allocatively efficient market.

A government-granted monopoly also called a " de jure monopoly" is a form of coercive monopoly , in which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or company to be the sole provider of a commodity.

Monopoly may be granted explicitly, as when potential competitors are excluded from the market by a specific law , or implicitly, such as when the requirements of an administrative regulation can only be fulfilled by a single market player, or through some other legal or procedural mechanism, such as patents , trademarks , and copyright.

A monopolist should shut down when price is less than average variable cost for every output level [70] — in other words where the demand curve is entirely below the average variable cost curve.

In an unregulated market, monopolies can potentially be ended by new competition, breakaway businesses, or consumers seeking alternatives.

In a regulated market, a government will often either regulate the monopoly, convert it into a publicly owned monopoly environment, or forcibly fragment it see Antitrust law and trust busting.

Public utilities , often being naturally efficient with only one operator and therefore less susceptible to efficient breakup, are often strongly regulated or publicly owned.

The law regulating dominance in the European Union is governed by Article of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which aims at enhancing the consumer's welfare and also the efficiency of allocation of resources by protecting competition on the downstream market.

Competition law does not make merely having a monopoly illegal, but rather abusing the power a monopoly may confer, for instance through exclusionary practices i.

It may also be noted that it is illegal to try to obtain a monopoly, by practices of buying out the competition, or equal practices.

If one occurs naturally, such as a competitor going out of business, or lack of competition, it is not illegal until such time as the monopoly holder abuses the power.

First it is necessary to determine whether a company is dominant, or whether it behaves "to an appreciable extent independently of its competitors, customers and ultimately of its consumer".

Establishing dominance is a two-stage test. The first thing to consider is market definition which is one of the crucial factors of the test.

As the definition of the market is of a matter of interchangeability, if the goods or services are regarded as interchangeable then they are within the same product market.

It is necessary to define it because some goods can only be supplied within a narrow area due to technical, practical or legal reasons and this may help to indicate which undertakings impose a competitive constraint on the other undertakings in question.

Since some goods are too expensive to transport where it might not be economic to sell them to distant markets in relation to their value, therefore the cost of transporting is a crucial factor here.

Other factors might be legal controls which restricts an undertaking in a Member States from exporting goods or services to another.

Market definition may be difficult to measure but is important because if it is defined too broadly, the undertaking may be more likely to be found dominant and if it is defined too narrowly, the less likely that it will be found dominant.

As with collusive conduct, market shares are determined with reference to the particular market in which the company and product in question is sold.

It does not in itself determine whether an undertaking is dominant but work as an indicator of the states of the existing competition within the market.

It sums up the squares of the individual market shares of all of the competitors within the market.

The lower the total, the less concentrated the market and the higher the total, the more concentrated the market. By European Union law, very large market shares raise a presumption that a company is dominant, which may be rebuttable.

The lowest yet market share of a company considered "dominant" in the EU was If a company has a dominant position, then there is a special responsibility not to allow its conduct to impair competition on the common market however these will all falls away if it is not dominant.

When considering whether an undertaking is dominant, it involves a combination of factors. Each of them cannot be taken separately as if they are, they will not be as determinative as they are when they are combined together.

According to the Guidance, there are three more issues that must be examined. They are actual competitors that relates to the market position of the dominant undertaking and its competitors, potential competitors that concerns the expansion and entry and lastly the countervailing buyer power.

Market share may be a valuable source of information regarding the market structure and the market position when it comes to accessing it.

The dynamics of the market and the extent to which the goods and services differentiated are relevant in this area. It concerns with the competition that would come from other undertakings which are not yet operating in the market but will enter it in the future.

So, market shares may not be useful in accessing the competitive pressure that is exerted on an undertaking in this area.

The potential entry by new firms and expansions by an undertaking must be taken into account, [81] therefore the barriers to entry and barriers to expansion is an important factor here.

Competitive constraints may not always come from actual or potential competitors. Sometimes, it may also come from powerful customers who have sufficient bargaining strength which come from its size or its commercial significance for a dominant firm.

There are three main types of abuses which are exploitative abuse, exclusionary abuse and single market abuse. It arises when a monopolist has such significant market power that it can restrict its output while increasing the price above the competitive level without losing customers.

This is most concerned about by the Commissions because it is capable of causing long- term consumer damage and is more likely to prevent the development of competition.

It arises when a dominant undertaking carrying out excess pricing which would not only have an exploitative effect but also prevent parallel imports and limits intra- brand competition.

Despite wide agreement that the above constitute abusive practices, there is some debate about whether there needs to be a causal connection between the dominant position of a company and its actual abusive conduct.

Furthermore, there has been some consideration of what happens when a company merely attempts to abuse its dominant position.

To provide a more specific example, economic and philosophical scholar Adam Smith cites that trade to the East India Company has, for the most part, been subjected to an exclusive company such as that of the English or Dutch.

Monopolies such as these are generally established against the nation in which they arose out of. The profound economist goes on to state how there are two types of monopolies.

The first type of monopoly is one which tends to always attract to the particular trade where the monopoly was conceived, a greater proportion of the stock of the society than what would go to that trade originally.

The second type of monopoly tends to occasionally attract stock towards the particular trade where it was conceived, and sometimes repel it from that trade depending on varying circumstances.

Rich countries tended to repel while poorer countries were attracted to this. For example, The Dutch company would dispose of any excess goods not taken to the market in order to preserve their monopoly while the English sold more goods for better prices.

Both of these tendencies were extremely destructive as can be seen in Adam Smith's writings. The term "monopoly" first appears in Aristotle 's Politics.

Vending of common salt sodium chloride was historically a natural monopoly. Until recently, a combination of strong sunshine and low humidity or an extension of peat marshes was necessary for producing salt from the sea, the most plentiful source.

Changing sea levels periodically caused salt " famines " and communities were forced to depend upon those who controlled the scarce inland mines and salt springs, which were often in hostile areas e.

The Salt Commission was a legal monopoly in China. Formed in , the Commission controlled salt production and sales in order to raise tax revenue for the Tang Dynasty.

The " Gabelle " was a notoriously high tax levied upon salt in the Kingdom of France. The much-hated levy had a role in the beginning of the French Revolution , when strict legal controls specified who was allowed to sell and distribute salt.

First instituted in , the Gabelle was not permanently abolished until Robin Gollan argues in The Coalminers of New South Wales that anti-competitive practices developed in the coal industry of Australia's Newcastle as a result of the business cycle.

The monopoly was generated by formal meetings of the local management of coal companies agreeing to fix a minimum price for sale at dock.

This collusion was known as "The Vend". The Vend ended and was reformed repeatedly during the late 19th century, ending by recession in the business cycle.

During the early 20th century, as a result of comparable monopolistic practices in the Australian coastal shipping business, the Vend developed as an informal and illegal collusion between the steamship owners and the coal industry, eventually resulting in the High Court case Adelaide Steamship Co.

Ltd v. Standard Oil was an American oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in , it became the largest oil refiner in the world.

Rockefeller was a founder, chairman and major shareholder. The company was an innovator in the development of the business trust.

The Standard Oil trust streamlined production and logistics, lowered costs, and undercut competitors. Its controversial history as one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations ended in , when the United States Supreme Court ruled that Standard was an illegal monopoly.

The Standard Oil trust was dissolved into 33 smaller companies; two of its surviving "child" companies are ExxonMobil and the Chevron Corporation.

Steel has been accused of being a monopoly. Morgan and Elbert H. Gary founded U. Steel was the largest steel producer and largest corporation in the world.

In its first full year of operation, U. Steel made 67 percent of all the steel produced in the United States. However, U. Steel's share of the expanding market slipped to 50 percent by , [93] and antitrust prosecution that year failed.

De Beers settled charges of price fixing in the diamond trade in the s. De Beers is well known for its monopoloid practices throughout the 20th century, whereby it used its dominant position to manipulate the international diamond market.

The company used several methods to exercise this control over the market. Firstly, it convinced independent producers to join its single channel monopoly, it flooded the market with diamonds similar to those of producers who refused to join the cartel, and lastly, it purchased and stockpiled diamonds produced by other manufacturers in order to control prices through limiting supply.

In , the De Beers business model changed due to factors such as the decision by producers in Russia, Canada and Australia to distribute diamonds outside the De Beers channel, as well as rising awareness of blood diamonds that forced De Beers to "avoid the risk of bad publicity" by limiting sales to its own mined products.

A public utility or simply "utility" is an organization or company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service or provides a set of services for public consumption.

Common examples of utilities are electricity , natural gas , water , sewage , cable television , and telephone. In the United States, public utilities are often natural monopolies because the infrastructure required to produce and deliver a product such as electricity or water is very expensive to build and maintain.

Western Union was criticized as a " price gouging " monopoly in the late 19th century. In the case of Telecom New Zealand , local loop unbundling was enforced by central government.

Telkom is a semi-privatised, part state-owned South African telecommunications company. Deutsche Telekom is a former state monopoly, still partially state owned.

The Comcast Corporation is the largest mass media and communications company in the world by revenue. Comcast has a monopoly in Boston , Philadelphia , and many other small towns across the US.

The United Aircraft and Transport Corporation was an aircraft manufacturer holding company that was forced to divest itself of airlines in In the s, LIRR became the sole railroad in that area through a series of acquisitions and consolidations.

In , the LIRR's commuter rail system is the busiest commuter railroad in North America, serving nearly , passengers daily.

Dutch East India Company was created as a legal trading monopoly in The Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie enjoyed huge profits from its spice monopoly through most of the 17th century.

The British East India Company was created as a legal trading monopoly in The Company traded in basic commodities, which included cotton , silk , indigo dye , salt , saltpetre , tea and opium.

Major League Baseball survived U. The National Football League survived antitrust lawsuit in the s but was convicted of being an illegal monopoly in the s.

According to professor Milton Friedman , laws against monopolies cause more harm than good, but unnecessary monopolies should be countered by removing tariffs and other regulation that upholds monopolies.

A monopoly can seldom be established within a country without overt and covert government assistance in the form of a tariff or some other device.

It is close to impossible to do so on a world scale. The De Beers diamond monopoly is the only one we know of that appears to have succeeded and even De Beers are protected by various laws against so called "illicit" diamond trade.

However, professor Steve H. Hanke believes that although private monopolies are more efficient than public ones, often by a factor of two, sometimes private natural monopolies, such as local water distribution, should be regulated not prohibited by, e.

Thomas DiLorenzo asserts, however, that during the early days of utility companies where there was little regulation, there were no natural monopolies and there was competition.

Baten , Bianchi and Moser [] find historical evidence that monopolies which are protected by patent laws may have adverse effects on the creation of innovation in an economy.

They argue that under certain circumstances, compulsory licensing — which allows governments to license patents without the consent of patent-owners — may be effective in promoting invention by increasing the threat of competition in fields with low pre-existing levels of competition.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the economic term. For the board game based on this concept, see Monopoly game.

For other uses, see Monopoly disambiguation. Market structure with a single firm dominating the market. The price of monopoly is upon every occasion the highest which can be got.

The natural price , or the price of free competition , on the contrary, is the lowest which can be taken, not upon every occasion indeed, but for any considerable time together.

The one is upon every occasion the highest which can be squeezed out of the buyers, or which it is supposed they will consent to give; the other is the lowest which the sellers can commonly afford to take, and at the same time continue their business.

Main article: Natural monopoly. Main article: Government-granted monopoly. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

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Main article: Competition law. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

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Complementary monopoly Monopsony De facto standard Demonopolization Dominant design Flag carrier History of monopoly Market segmentation index , used to measure the degree of monopoly power Megacorporation Ramsey problem , a policy rule concerning what price a monopolist should set.

Simulations and games in economics education that model monopolistic markets. State monopoly capitalism Unfair competition.

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Thomson South-Western. Southern California Law Review. Microeconomics in Context 2nd ed. Managerial Economics 4th ed.

Intermediate Microeconomics. Managerial Economics. Microeconomics, The Freedom to Choose. CAT Publishing. Microeconomics 5th ed. Microeconomic Analysis 3rd ed.

Price is exogenous and it is possible to associate each price with unique profit maximizing quantity. Besanko, David, and Ronald Braeutigam, Microeconomics 2nd ed.

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Cambridge University Press. Houghton Mifflin. Microeconomics 2nd ed. American Economic Review. Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 28 March Microeconomics: Theory and Applications 2nd ed.

That is the company is behaving like a perfectly competitive company. The monopolist will continue to sell extra units as long as the extra revenue exceeds the marginal cost of production.

The problem that the company has is that the company must charge a different price for each successive unit sold.

Pindyck and Rubinfeld , pp. Using this equation the manager can obtain elasticity information and set prices for each segment. As a rule of thumb the company's elasticity coefficient is 5 to 6 times that of the industry.

The reason there is not any popcorn discount is that there is not any effective way to prevent resell. A profit maximizing theater owner maximizes concession sales by selling where marginal revenue equals marginal cost.

Economics: A Contemporary Introduction. Cengage Learning. McConnell, Stanley L. Government-Granted Monopoly. Detroit: Gale Cengage Learning.

Retrieved 6 November Microeconomics and Behavior 7th ed. Politics B. In Epstein, I. The Talmud. Zeraim vol.

London: The Soncino Press. Rabbi Judah agrees that if a man bought from a monopolist, he must tithe every heap. Journal of the History of Economic Thought.

Presses universitaires de France: — The Coalminers of New South Wales: a history of the union, — Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.

Computer Gaming World. Journal of Development Economics. Many of the early tokens were created by companies such as Dowst Miniature Toy Company, which made metal charms and Beste Spielothek in Bamlach finden designed to be used on charm bracelets. To avoid bankruptcy the player must be able to raise enough cash to pay the full amount owed. Colarusso September 30, Marvin Gardens, the farthest yellow property, is a misspelling of its actual name, Marven Gardens. Beste Spielothek in Högling finden classic line illustration was also now usually replaced by renderings of a 3D Mr. National Championship.

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